To respond to the initial group of research concerns concerning the prevalence of nonheterosexual material on tv, we utilized episode degree information ( e.g., percentages of episodes containing sex that is same behavior and containing speak about intercourse linked to nonheterosexuals) and chi square analyses to examine between team distinctions with one of these nominal information. For the 2nd pair of research concerns, we utilized just those implies that contained nonheterosexual sexual content and evaluated their regularity across 2 moment periods ( ag e.g., quantity of intervals per hour of system time with nonheterosexual intimate talk). Of these analyses, we used t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to evaluate team distinctions. Significant f that is omnibus had been followed up with post hoc comparisons making use of Tamhane’s T2 test, which will not assume equal mobile size or equal variance, to recognize significant distinctions across teams.
Results.Prevalence of Nonheterosexual Sexual Content
About one out of six programs within our examples included any sexual content (behavior or talk) pertaining to nonheterosexuals. The increase that is slight nonheterosexual intimate content through the 2001 2002 period (14.5%) towards the 2002 2003 period (17.4%) had been significant, П‡ 2 (1, N = 2715) = 4.15, p dining Table 1 shows the portion of suggests that contained any exact same intercourse intimate behavior and any intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals by system genres, by variety of system, and also by time of day aired. For community kind, the 11 channels had been categorized into certainly one of three groups: commercial broadcast (including the 3 major sites ABC, CBS, and NBC in addition to Fox, UPN, and WB), cable music entertainment (including BET and MTV), and premium cable film (which included Cinemax, HBO, and Showtime). With regards to period of time broadcast, shows airing between 3:00 and 8:00 p.m. had been categorized as late afternoon/early night and those shown between 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. were classified as prime time.
Portion of Episodes with Same Intercourse Sexual habits and talk that is sexual to Nonheterosexuals
Note: Within kind of community and period of day aired, percentages within the column that is same don’t share subscripts vary at p dining Table 1 ). More often than not, there clearly was a top amount of communication from a genre’s general rankings for exact same intercourse intimate behavior and speak about nonheterosexual intimate dilemmas. Also, genres’ standings on these two factors were fairly stable throughout the two television periods.
Three genres had been regularly lower in both types of nonheterosexual sexual content: Children’s cartoons (none of which included sexual behavior or intimate talk associated with nonheterosexuals in a choice of 12 months), news mags (0% for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 3.2per cent and 6.5%, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 2), and talk programs (0 and 3.0percent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 2.2 and 8.9per cent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk for year 2). 3 Genres that tended to have the greatest proportions of programs with nonheterosexual content had been variety/comedy and film that is feature. Created for television films and programs classified as вЂњotherвЂќ also had fairly high proportions with nonheterosexual intimate content; but, both these groups included just a small amount perfect tits webcam of programs (letter = 7), which makes it hard to draw conclusions about them. Consequently, we do not highlight the findings associated with them although we include these latter two genres in the tables.
System kind evaluations
Across community types, we discovered comparable habits generally in nonheterosexual intimate content between the 2 tv periods, with consistently reduced percentages of programs on commercial broadcast companies containing exact same intercourse intimate behavior and intimate talk regarding nonheterosexuals and also the greatest percentages of shows with both forms of content on premium cable movie sites. The typical amount of periods containing exact same intercourse sexual behavior ended up being 3.7 in 12 months 1 and dropped to 3.0 in year 2. This distinction, nevertheless, had not been statistically significant (p = .23). Likewise a t test of this 331 episodes from 12 months 1 and 12 months 2 that included non heterosexual intimate talk suggested that the real difference when you look at the frequency of these content between your two tv periods (4.2 periods in 12 months 1 and 4.9 periods for 12 months 2) wasn’t significant (p = .18).
Number of exact exact Same Sex Sexual Behavior and Talk associated with Nonhetrosexuals each hour of Program Time
Note: Within kind of system and time of day aired, means in the exact same line that don’t share subscripts vary at p 1 For simplicity of presentation, we make use of the term вЂњnonheterosexualвЂќ to mention collectively to all or any individuals whose intimate orientation just isn’t solely heterosexual, including gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals of either intercourse.
2 one other intimate behavior category ended up being utilized to fully capture all the kinds of intimate tasks that failed to get into the categories specified flirting, kissing, intimate touching, intercourse implied, and intercourse depicted including low level intimate functions such as for instance leering to higher level sexual functions such as for example masturbation and bondage and control.
3 Because our system sample ended up being collected between 3:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m., some talk programs, such as for example Jerry Springer, that may deal with greater regularity with intimate themes weren’t included since they had been broadcast earlier. The 12 talk programs inside our test included those broadcast into the and evening such as Oprah, Rosie O’Donnell, Ricki Lake, The Other Half, and BET Tonight as well as political talk shows (e.g., Face the Nation, McLaughlin Group, The Chris Matthews Show) afternoon.
4 Because our examples consist of programs from both broadcast that is commercial cable sites, we utilized a typical unit wide range of 2 moment periods each hour of system time instead of wide range of 2 moment periods per one hour show to evaluate the regularity of intimate behavior and speak about sex related to nonheterosexuals. This makes up the proven fact that commercials considerably lower the amount of system content on broadcast networks to about 22 two moment intervals in a single hour system, whereas an hour cable programs typically have actually about 30 two moment intervals.
Deborah A. Fisher, Research Scientist at Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Douglas L. Hill, Associate Research Scientist at Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Joel W. Grube, Director and a Senior Research Scientist in the Prevention analysis Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Enid L. Gruber, Assistant Professor when you look at the Department of Child and Adolescent Studies at Ca State University, Fullerton.